The Universe of Galaxies
Galaxies are in one sense the visible atoms of the cosmic fabric,
tracing huge structures both in time and space. They have dynamic internal
histories as well, with very different formation and evolution schemes
under discussion and test. Galaxies and activity at their nuclei are
now appearing to be inextricably linked. We will explore here many
facets of galaxies, with the aim of getting to the point where you
can intelligently jump into the research literature and launch
In this course, we will deal with:
Galaxies - their integrated properties, classification, stellar
and gaseous content
Clusters of galaxies - galaxy and gasesous content, evolution
Active nuclei - QSOs, Seyfert nuclei, radio galaxies, the central
Intergalactic medium - Gunn-Peterson effect, QSO absorption systems
Galaxy formation and evolution - observations and some theory
Cosmology - world models, dark matter, and gravitational lensing
Some generally useful overall book references on these subjects are listed
WWW resources are generally less complete, with the notable exception of
cosmology tutorial at UCLA.
Galactic Astronomy: Structure and Kinematics, D. Mihalas and J.
Binney, Freeman 1981. This includes a nice overview of galaxy properties
Galactic Dynamics, J. Binney and S. Tremaine, Princeton 1987. This is
the standard reference on galaxy dynamics. I'm in awe of these
characters and the fabulous level of their discussion. Oddly enough,
though, because Gene Byrd teaches a separate course at UA in celestial
mechanics, we'll use only some small snippets of their material.
Astrophysics II - Interstellar Matter and Galaxies, R. Bowers and T.
Deeming, Jones and Bartlett 1984
Galaxies and the Universe, vol. 9 of
Stars and Stellar Systems,
ed. A. Sandage, M. Sandage, and J. Kristian, U. Chicago 1977. A classic,
with solid reviews on galaxy classification and properties. While
they are pretty old by current standards, some of the material is still
well worth reading.
Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies, ed. S. Faber and D. Lynden-Bell, Cambridge 1981
Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, ed. B.M. Tinsley and
R.B. Larson, Yale Obs. 1977. This volume is the proceedings of the "Yale
Conference", notable for the dawning realization that galaxies evolve
both passively and actively.
Toomre's paper on mergers and de Vaucouleurs'
review of quantitative classification, in particular, are still cited
Quasar Astronomy, D.W. Weedman, Cambridge 1987. A good
phenomonological review, including observational cosmology.
Nearly Normal Galaxies, ed. S.M. Faber, Springer 1987
Stellar Populations, ed. C. Norman, A. Renzini, and M. Tosi,
Cambridge (STScI series) 1987
The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies, ed. H. Thronson and
J.M. Shull, Kluwer 1990
Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei, D.E.
Osterbrock, University Science Books 1989. Detailed treatment of
emission-line astrophysics; the new edition included extensive
application to the context of QSO and AGN spectra. There is now
a substantially extended 2nd edition (2006)
coauthored with Gary Ferland.
Introduction to Active Galactic Nuclei, B.M. Peterson
(Cambridge, 1997). The full text has been made available
online, courtesy of the Cambridge University Press
The Road to Galaxy Formation, Keel (Springer-Praxis 2002). I will
be trying out material for the second edition during the course.
Of historical interest are
Realm of the Nebulae, E.P. Hubble (1936, recently reprinted
by Dover). It is still impressive to see how much
of current extragalactic research was foreshadowed within a few years of
the confirmation that external galaxies actually exist.
Evolution of Stars and Galaxies, W. Baade (Harvard, 1963). This
posthumous collection of lectures includes
much of Baade's thought on stellar populations.
Discovery of galaxies »
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